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Click here to see how to enable them. Since active dermal fibroblasts express Hoxd8 and Hoxd10 ( Torok et al., 1998), it is thought that differentiated fibroblasts in mature limb tissues have positional memory as a limb territory where limb regeneration could occur and reactivate the memory in response to injury. These observations newly suggest that induction of ectopic apoptosis occurs prior to reduction of proliferative activity in the denervated blastema in Xenopus. We focused on cellular response (cell proliferation, apoptosis and gene expression) to denervation, with comparison to normal blastema, denervated blastema and lateral wound healing of the Xenopus froglet forelimb. .. Moreover, analysis of the expressions of several genes demonstrated that the neurotrophic factors are needed for the maintenance of expression of Tbx5 and Prx1 in the early blastema and for the initiation of expression of Msx1, Fgf8 and Fgf10 in the late blastema. We also investigated the lateral wound healing in comparison to blastema formation in limb regeneration. The importance of nerves in regeneration has long been recognized, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating neuronal effects (reviewed by Gardiner et al., 2002).Studies on nerve deviation that induces blastema-like outgrowth (a bump) to a lateral skin wound of a urodele limb have suggested that neurotrophic factors play an important role in blastema formation itself as well as in its maintenance and outgrowth (Bodemer, 1958, Bodemer, 1959, Endo et al., 2004, Maden and Holder, 1984andReynolds et al., 1983). Download PDF Opens in a new window.